Android实现访问硬件和控制方法

///Android实现访问硬件和控制方法

Android实现访问硬件和控制方法

我们通过原理知道,Android应用由java代码编写,而java不能直接访问硬件,那么Android应用如何访问硬件?
一般有两个访问硬件的方法有2种:

  • JNI访问
  • 硬件访问服务

JNI访问

JAVA APP—>JNI_OnLoad()加载C库—->将JAVA三个地方法与C库函数进行关联并注册—->调用JAVA本地Native方法就可以访问C库的C接口——>进而访问硬件驱动中的open, read, write,从进访问硬件。
这里写图片描述

但是,以上场景仅限于只有一个APP使用这个硬件资源,如果有多个应用想要使用某个硬件时,如果还按上面方法,必须会造成硬件资源的冲突,所以此时需要有一种框架来解决这个问题。解决方案就是访问硬件资源的程序只能并且只有一个,我们称之为System Server, 其它要访问这个硬件资源的APP必须要给Server发请求,由Server间接的操作硬件,从而实现资源的访问。这个就称之为硬件访问服务。

hardcontrol.c最终编译成hardcontrol.so, 可以放到apk中去,可以作为共享库在Android syserm存在。


#include   /* /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-amd64/include/ */
#include 
#include 
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include 
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

#include <android/log.h>  /* liblog */

//__android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_DEBUG, "JNIDemo", "native add ...");


#if 0
typedef struct {
    char *name;          /* Java里调用的函数名 */
    char *signature;    /* JNI字段描述符, 用来表示Java里调用的函数的参数和返回值类型 */
    void *fnPtr;          /* C语言实现的本地函数 */
} JNINativeMethod;
#endif

static jint fd;

jint ledOpen(JNIEnv *env, jobject cls)
{
    fd = open("/dev/leds", O_RDWR);
    __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_DEBUG, "LEDDemo", "native ledOpen : %d", fd);
    if (fd >= 0)
        return 0;
    else
        return -1;
}

void ledClose(JNIEnv *env, jobject cls)
{
    __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_DEBUG, "LEDDemo", "native ledClose ...");
    close(fd);
}


jint ledCtrl(JNIEnv *env, jobject cls, jint which, jint status)
{
    int ret = ioctl(fd, status, which);
    __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_DEBUG, "LEDDemo", "native ledCtrl : %d, %d, %d", which, status, ret);
    return ret;
}


static const JNINativeMethod methods
[] = { {"ledOpen", "()I", (void *)ledOpen}, {"ledClose", "()V", (void *)ledClose}, {"ledCtrl", "(II)I", (void *)ledCtrl}, }; /* System.loadLibrary */ JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL JNI_OnLoad(JavaVM *jvm, void *reserved) { JNIEnv *env; jclass cls; if ((*jvm)->GetEnv(jvm, (void **)&env, JNI_VERSION_1_4)) { return JNI_ERR; /* JNI version not supported */ } cls = (*env)->FindClass(env, "com/thisway/hardlibrary/HardControl"); if (cls == NULL) { return JNI_ERR; } /* 2. map java hello <-->c c_hello */ if ((*env)->RegisterNatives(env, cls, methods, sizeof(methods)/sizeof(methods[0])) < 0) return JNI_ERR; return JNI_VERSION_1_4; }

硬件访问服务

这里写图片描述

com_android_server_ledservice.cpp


#define LOG_TAG "LedService"

#include "jni.h"
#include "JNIHelp.h"
#include "android_runtime/AndroidRuntime.h"

#include <utils/misc.h>
#include <utils/Log.h>

#include 

#include 
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include 
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <hardware/led_hal.h>


namespace android
{

static led_device_t* led_device;

jint ledOpen(JNIEnv *env, jobject cls)
{
    jint err;
    hw_module_t* module;
    hw_device_t* device;

    ALOGI("native ledOpen ...");

    /* 1. hw_get_module */
    err = hw_get_module("led", (hw_module_t const**)&module);
    if (err == 0) {
        /* 2. get device : module->methods->open */
        err = module->methods->open(module, NULL, &device);
        if (err == 0) {
            /* 3. call led_open */
            led_device = (led_device_t *)device;
            return led_device->led_open(led_device);
        } else {
            return -1;
        }
    }

    return -1;  
}

void ledClose(JNIEnv *env, jobject cls)
{
    //ALOGI("native ledClose ...");
    //close(fd);
}


jint ledCtrl(JNIEnv *env, jobject cls, jint which, jint status)
{
    ALOGI("native ledCtrl %d, %d", which, status);
    return led_device->led_ctrl(led_device, which, status);
}


static const JNINativeMethod methods[] = {
    {"native_ledOpen", "()I", (void *)ledOpen},
    {"native_ledClose", "()V", (void *)ledClose},
    {"native_ledCtrl", "(II)I", (void *)ledCtrl},
};

/*注册JNI本地方法*/
int register_android_server_LedService(JNIEnv *env)
{
    return jniRegisterNativeMethods(env, "com/android/server/LedService",
            methods, NELEM(methods));
}

}

hal_led.c


#define LOG_TAG "LedHal"


/* 1. 实现一个名为HMI的hw_module_t结构体 */

/* 2. 实现一个open函数, 它返回led_device_t结构体 */

/* 3. 实现led_device_t结构体 */

/* 参考 hardware\libhardware\modules\vibrator\vibrator.c
 */

#include <hardware/vibrator.h>
#include <hardware/hardware.h>

#include <cutils/log.h>

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 

#include <hardware/led_hal.h>

#include 
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include 
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <utils/Log.h>


static int fd;


/** Close this device */
static int led_close(struct hw_device_t* device)
{
    close(fd);
    return 0;
}

static int led_open(struct led_device_t* dev)
{
    fd = open("/dev/leds", O_RDWR);
    ALOGI("led_open : %d", fd);
    if (fd >= 0)
        return 0;
    else
        return -1;
}

static int led_ctrl(struct led_device_t* dev, int which, int status)
{
    int ret = ioctl(fd, status, which);
    ALOGI("led_ctrl : %d, %d, %d", which, status, ret);
    return ret;
}




static struct led_device_t led_dev = {
    .common = {
        .tag   = HARDWARE_DEVICE_TAG,
        .close = led_close,
    },
    .led_open  = led_open,
    .led_ctrl  = led_ctrl,
};

static int led_device_open(const struct hw_module_t* module, const char* id,
        struct hw_device_t** device)
{
    *device = &led_dev;
    return 0;
}


static struct hw_module_methods_t led_module_methods = {
    .open = led_device_open,
};

struct hw_module_t HAL_MODULE_INFO_SYM = {
    .tag = HARDWARE_MODULE_TAG,
    .id = "led",
    .methods = &led_module_methods,
};


system server.java

Slog.i(TAG, "Led Service");
ServiceManager.addService("led", new LedService());
  • 1
  • 2

LEDService.java

package com.android.server;
import android.os.ILedService;

public class LedService extends ILedService.Stub {
    private static final String TAG = "LedService";

    /* call native c function to access hardware */
    public int ledCtrl(int which, int status) throws android.os.RemoteException
    {
        return native_ledCtrl(which, status);
    }

    public LedService() {
        native_ledOpen();
    }

    public static native int native_ledOpen();
    public static native void native_ledClose();
    public static native int native_ledCtrl(int which, int status);
}

ILEDService.java由ILEDService.aidl生成
ILEDService.aid

package android.os;

/** {@hide} */
interface ILedService
{
    int ledCtrl(int which, int status);
}

如何实现一个硬件访问服务

  1. 编写JNI和HAL,以led为例,先编写com_android_server_ledservice.cpp,用于注册JNI本地方法。再编写hal_led.c,里面就是实现open,read,write等硬件访问接口。
  2. 修改onload.cpp,调它调用com_android_server_ledservice.cpp内实现的函数,
  3. 修改system server.java,
    new ledservice()
    add ledservice()
  4. 编写LEDService.java,用于调用本地方法,实现硬件操作
  5. 编写ILEDService.java接口给app使用。
2018-08-19T20:42:07+08:00 三月 18th, 2018|Android开发|0 条评论

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